Soil Types E to K
In USDA soil taxonomy, entisols are defined as soils that do not show any profile development other than an A horizon. An entisol has no diagnostic horizons, and most are basically unaltered from their parent material, which can be unconsolidated sediment or rock. Entisols are the second most abundant soil order (after inceptisols), occupying about 16% of the global ice-free land area.
In Australia, most entisols are known as rudosols or tenosols, whilst arents are known as anthroposols. In the FAO soil classification, because of the diversity of their properties, suborders of entisols form individual soil orders (e.g. fluvisols, lithosols)
Expansive clay is a clay that is prone to large volume changes that are directly related to changes in water content.
The mineral make-up of this type of soil is responsible for the moisture retaining capabilities. Soils with smectite clay minerals, including montmorillonite, have the most dramatic swelling properties. Expansive soils typically contain one or more of these clay minerals: montmorillonite, smectite, bentonite and illite.
Mitigation of the effects of expansive clay on structures built in areas with expansive clays is a major challenge in geotechnical engineering.
Flatwood is a soil series with impaired drainage that occurs in the southeastern United States. Flatwood soils are upland soils formed from marine sediments. A shallow water table plays a role in soil formation, typically the water table is only a few feet deep and fluctuates during the year. Flatwood soils are classified in USDA soil taxonomy as fine, mixed, semiactive, mesic Aquic Hapludults
A Fluvisol in the FAO World Reference Base for Soil Resources is a genetically young soil in alluvial deposits . Apart from river sediments, they also occur in lacustrine and marine deposits. Fluvisols correlate with Fluvents and Fluvaquents of the USDA soil taxonomy. The good natural fertility of most Fluvisols and their attractive dwelling sites on river levees and higher parts in marine landscapes were recognized in prehistoric times.
Fluvisols are found on alluvial plains, river fans, valleys and tidal marshes on all continents and in all climate zones. Under natural conditions periodical flooding is fairly common. The soils have a clear evidence of stratification. Soil horizons are weakly developed, but a distinct topsoil horizon may be present
Gelisols are an order in USDA soil taxonomy. They are soils of very cold climates which are defined as containing permafrost within two meters of the soil surface. The word “Gelisol” comes from the Latin gelare meaning “to freeze”, a reference to the process of cryoturbation that occurs from the alternating thawing and freezing characteristic of Gelisols.
Gley soil in soil science is a type of hydric soil which exhibits a greenish-blue-grey soil color due to anoxic wetland conditions. On exposure to the air, gley colors are transformed to a mottled pattern of reddish, yellow or orange patches, as the iron in the soil oxidizes. During gley soil formation (a process known as gleying), the oxygen supply in the soil profile is restricted due to soil moisture at saturation. Anaerobic micro-organisms support cellular respiration by using alternatives to free oxygen as electron acceptors. This is most often the case when the sesquioxide of iron, ferric oxide is reduced to ferrous oxide by the removal of oxygen. These reduced mineral compounds produce the gley soil typical color. Green rust, a layered double hydroxide (LDH) of Fe(II) and Fe(III) can be found as the mineral fougerite in gley soils.
Gley soils may be sticky and hard to work, especially where the gleying is caused by surface water, held up on a slowly permeable layer. However, some ground-water gley soils have permeable lower horizons, including some sands, for example in hollows within sand dune systems, known as slacks, and in some alluvial situations
A Gleysol (Russian: gley is dialectical word глей, literally “clay”) in the FAO World Reference Base for Soil Resources is a wetland soil that, unless drained, is saturated with groundwater for long enough periods to develop a characteristic gleyic colour pattern. This pattern is essentially made up of reddish, brownish or yellowish colours at surfaces of soil particles (peds) and/or in the upper soil horizons mixed with greyish/blueish colours inside the peds and/or deeper in the soil. Gleysols are also known as Gleyzems and meadow soils (Russia), Aqu-suborders of Entisols, Inceptisols and Mollisols (USDA soil taxonomy), or as groundwater soils and hydro-morphic soils.
Gleysols occur on wide range of unconsolidated materials, mainly fluvial, marine and lacustrine sediments of Pleistocene or Holocene age, with basic to acidic mineralogy. They are found in depression areas and low landscape positions with shallow groundwater.
Guelph soil series is the name given to a well drained or moderately well drained medium-textured soil which has developed on calcareous glacial till in parts of Michigan, Ohio in the United States and Ontario in Canada. It is an alfisol which is classified as an Orthic Gray Brown Luvisol under the Canadian system of soil classification.
Gypsisols in the FAO World Reference Base for Soil Resources are soils with substantial secondary accumulation of gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O). They are found in the driest parts of the arid climate zone.In the USDA soil taxonomy they are classified as Gypsids (USDA Soil Taxonomy), in the Russian soil classification they are called Desert soils (USSR).
Gypsisols are developed in mostly unconsolidated alluvial, colluvial and aeolian deposits of base-rich weathering material. They are found on level to hilly land in arid regions. The natural vegetation is sparse and dominated by xerophytic shrubs and trees and/or ephemeral grasses
These soils have ABC profiles. Accumulation of calcium sulphate, with or without carbonates, is concentrated in and below the B-horizon.
The Hilo soil series consists of very deep, moderately well drained soils that formed in many layers of volcanic ash with lesser amounts of dust from the deserts of central Asia. These dust layers are noticeable because their gray color contrasts with the dark brown and dark reddish brown subsoil formed in volcanic ash. There are several buried layers within the Hilo soil profile. Hilo soils occur on the uplands of the Mauna Kea volcano along the Hāmākua Coast on the island of Hawaii.
In both the FAO soil classification and the USDA soil taxonomy, a histosol is a soil consisting primarily of organic materials. They are defined as having 40 centimetres (16 in) or more of organic soil material in the upper 80 centimetres (31 in). Organic soil material has an organic carbon content (by weight) of 12 to 18 percent, or more, depending on the clay content of the soil. These materials include muck (sapric soil material), mucky peat (hemic soil material), or peat (fibric soil material). Aquic conditions or artificial drainage are required. Typically, histosols have very low bulk density and are poorly drained because the organic matter holds water very well. Most are acidic and many are very deficient in major plant nutrients which are washed away in the consistently moist soil.
Histosols are known by various other names in other countries, such as peat or muck. In Australia, histosols are called organosols.
Houdek is a type of soil composed of glacial till and decomposed organic matter. It is found only in the U.S. state of South Dakota where it is the state soil.
Houston Black Soil extends over 1,500,000 acres (6,100 km2) of Texas and is the Texas state soil. The Houston Black Soil has expansive clays and are classic vertisols.
Hume is a soil type that is well drained and slowly permeable. Hume is formed from the erosion of shale and sandstone. Hume soils occur naturally on slopes and alluvial fans..
A hydric soil is a soil that formed under conditions of saturation, flooding, or ponding long enough during the growing season to develop anaerobic conditions in the upper part.
Hydrophobic soil – soil that is hydrophobic – causes water to collect on the soil surface rather than infiltrate into the ground. Wild fires generally cause soils to be hydrophobic temporarily, which increases water repellency, surface runoff and erosion in post-burn sites. Soil dispersion due to sodification causes similar problems.
Hydrophobic soils are created when hydrocarbon residue is created after organic material is burnt and soaks into empty pore spaces in the soils, making it impervious to water.
Dryness, plant chemicals, aromatic oils, and other chemicals also cause hydrophobicity.
Inceptisols are a soil order in USDA soil taxonomy. They form quickly through alteration of parent material. They are older than entisols. They have no accumulation of clays, iron oxide, aluminium oxide or organic matter. They have an ochric or umbric horizon and a cambic subsurface horizon.
The Jory series consists of very deep, well-drained soils that formed in colluvium derived from basic igneous rock. These soils are in the foothills surrounding the Willamette Valley. They have been mapped on more than 300,000 acres (1,200 km2) in western Oregon. They are named after Jory Hill, Marion County, Oregon, which itself is named for the Jory family, who settled in the area in 1852, after traveling along the Oregon Trail.
Kalkaska sand was identified in 1927 and named after Kalkaska County located in the northern Lower Peninsula of Michigan. This soil is a multi-layer soil composed of humus, light sand, dark sand, and yellowish sand. It is classified as a spodosol. The distinctive sand layers can range from black to yellowish-brown and are commonly 2 to 4 feet (0.6 to 1.2 m) deep. Kalkaska sand is well-drained and effectively filters water. This makes it a valuable asset in forestry and certain types of agriculture. It is also largely responsible for the remarkable water quality of lakes and rivers located in areas of the state where these soils are abundant.
Kastanozems is one of the 30 soil groups in the classification system of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). These soils are brighter than Chernozems, and are related to the Mollisols in the USDA soil taxonomy. They are rich in humus, and originally covered with early maturing native grasslands vegetation, which produces a characteristic brown surface layer in the first meter in depth. They have a relative high level of available calcium ions bound to soil particles and can have a petrocalcic horizon between 25 and 100 cm thick..